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    European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) and Greenpeace International (GP). Working for the Climate: Renewable Energy & the Green Job [R]evolutionEnglish.  2009. 72 pp.

    GP undertook this study to determine whether there would be more jobs created by its “Energy [R]evolution” scenario (see below) — which called for a nine-fold increase in renewable energy and massive global energy efficiency measures — than in a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. The report looks at jobs in power generation and electrical efficiency (excluding heating, cooling and transport) and concludes that the [R]evolution scenario would increase power sector jobs overall around 2 million over 20 years, whereas BAU would result in the loss of a  half a million energy supply jobs between 2010 and 2030.

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    International Energy Agency (IEA). Energy Policy Review of Chile. English. 2009. 270 pp.

    The IEA undertook this energy policy review at Chile’s request, part of Chile’s preparations to join the OECD. The Review concludes that while Chile can be proud of its accomplishments in privatization and liberalization of the energy market in Chile, and its success in energy access (99% of the population has access to power), it still has substantial tasks ahead, including: finalization of its long-term energy strategy; more promotion of renewables and energy efficiency; reorganization of its sectoral governance, particularly through the creation of an Energy Ministry and clearer lines of authority and policy coordination; a framework to ensure that long-term investment decisions will be based on long-term cost/benefit analysis, including environmental externalities and the downward cost curve of certain technologies.

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    European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) and Greenpeace International (GP). Energy [R]evolution: A Sustainable Chile Energy Outlook. English. 2009. 52 pp.

    This is the Chilean edition of GP’s effort to show, through scenarios, that an energy revolution is technically and economically feasible that not only meets tough greenhouse gas emission goals and projected energy demands with less dependence on nuclear power and fossil fuels. GP says that currently renewables account for 22.4% of primary energy demand in Chile — these include biomass (used mostly for heating), and hydropower, used primarily for electricity production — while the rest comes from fossil fuels. Renewables’ share of electricity generation is 49%. Use of renewables for heating accounts for about 32.4%.

    GP’s Energy [R]evolution recipe for Chile’s pathway to sustainable energy consists of:

    GP says if this pathway is followed, it would reduce Chile’s annual CO2 emissions  from 59 million tons in 2005 to 25 million tons in 2050, and by 2050 result in an average electricity generation cost of 8.2 cents/kWh compared to 15.1 cents/kWh in the reference scenario.

    For a more complete discussion of this report, see the Temas Blog review.

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    Practical Action Consulting. Small-Scale Bioenergy Initiatives: Brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Africa. Prepared by PAC for the Policy Innovation Systems for Clean Energy Security (PISCES) and UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). English. 2009. 142 pp.

    This study shows that bioenergy projects can benefit the rural poor. It looks at 15 case studies in 12 nations in six regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America to examine the impacts that different types of local level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods in different contexts in the developing world. The cases studies include a look at projects involving ethanol micro-distilleries in Brazil, jatropha biodiesel in Guatemala, and vegetable oil recycling in Peru.

    For more on this study, see the Temas Blog post on it.

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    UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and New Energy Finance Ltd. Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009. English. 2009. 64 pp.

    This report was commissioned by UNEP’s Division of Technology, Industry and Economic (DTIE) under its Sustainable Energy Finance Initiative (SEFI). It finds that investment in the sustainable energy market has defied the global recession growing by around 5% — from $148 billion in 2007 to around $155 billion in 2008 — in large part due to investments in developing countries, particularly China and Brazil. Of this $13.5 billion of new private investment went into companies developing and scaling-up new technologies alongside $117 billion of investment in renewable energy projects from geothermal and wind to solar and biofuels.

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    Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC). Toward a Just and Sustainable Solar Energy IndustryEnglish. 2009. 48 pp.

    This “white paper” by SVTC cautions that while the solar photovolatic (PV) sector may help address climate change, reduce dependence on fossil fuel imports and create “green jobs,” the materials and processes it is using and is likely to use in the foreseeable future may create serious health and environmental risks now and probably will create serious e-waste issues at end of product life 20 years from now. It offers a series of recommendations to make the PV industry truly “clean and green” from cradle to grave and serve as a model for how other innovative “green” industries address the life-cycle impacts of their products. These include the imposition of extended producer responsibility (EPR) and design for recycling requirements.

    For a discussion of this report, see the Temas Blog post on it.

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    Pistonesi, Héctor, et. al. The contribution of biofuels to the sustainability of development in Latin America and the Caribbean: elements for formulating public policy. Published by ECLAC/CEPAL.  English. 2008. 82 pp.

    This report cautions that any national biofuels policy take into account the complex, multi-dimensional nature of the subject, address not only the export market bu solves domestic problems, creates new opportunities for rural development, and meet the set of conditions that ensure biofuel production actually contributes to sustainable development.  Its suggests a series of questions and considerations all LAC national policies should take into account — impact on net energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions, rural development, land use, tackling poverty and under-nutrition, etc.

    The report reiterates ECLAC’s past suggestion that, for most LAC nations, energy savings policies and programs can contribute more to sustainable development than biofuels, “which are at best a marginal, short-term solution to central problems of energy and the environment.” It also suggests that perhaps the proper national approach would be to develop rural development policies that meet the nation’s basic energy needs and address issues such as poverty, indigence and under-nutrition.

    The report then divides up LAC nations into nine categories (five possible for bioethanol production, three for biodiesel, one for both) based on criteria such as oil import dependence, net food importer or exporter, climate, poverty and under-nutrition rates, demand for land, and briefly discusses the key issues to address for each.  [Interesting enough, the study suggests that only Brazil has the conditions to be a significant producer of both bioethanol and biodiesel.]

    For a more complete discussion of this report, see the Temas Blog review.

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    European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) and Greenpeace International (GP). [R]evolución Energética: Una Perspectiva de Energia Sustentable para MéxicoSpanish. 2008. 48 pp.

    This is the Mexican edition of GP’s effort to show, through scenarios, that an energy revolution is technically and economically feasible that not only meets tough greenhouse gas emission goals and projected energy demands with less dependence on nuclear power and fossil fuels. GP says that currently renewables account for 10% of primary energy demand in Mexico — these include biomass (used almost entirely for heating and cooking), and geothermal and hydropower, used primarily for electricity production — while the rest comes from fossil fuels. Renewables’ share of electricity generation is 17.6%. Use of renewables for heating and cooking accounts for about 18%.

    GP’s Energy [R]evolution recipe for Mexico’s pathway to sustainable energy consists of:

    GP says if this pathway is followed, not only can CO2 reduction goals can be reached, annual electricity supply costs could be stabilized rather than quadruple by 2050 as they are projected to do under the reference scenario.

    To realize the [R]evolution scenario in Mexico, GP calls for (1) ending subsidies to fossil fuels and nuclear power and internalizing external (social and environmental) costs; (2) establish mandatory targets for integrating renewable energy sources; (3) provide defined and stable benefits to investors in renewables; (4) give guaranteed priority access to the grid for renewable energy generators; (5) set strict energy efficiency norms for all appliances, buildings and vehicles.

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    European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) and Greenpeace International (GP). Global Energy [R]evolution: A Sustainable Global Energy Outlook. English. Executive Summary in Spanish. 2008. 212 pp.

    This is the second edition (the first was in 2007) of GP’s effort to show, through scenarios (both global and regional), that a global energy revolution is technically and economically feasible that not only meets tough greenhouse gas emission goals (stabilizing developing country emissions while cutting OECD emissions by as much as 80%) and projected energy demands by 2030, but also phases out nuclear power and dependence on fossil fuels. The key, says the report, is substantially ramping up development of renewable energy sources (an investment of US$14.7 trillion by 2030 in the electricity sector alone) and heavily promoting energy efficiency measures. While the investment needed would be equivalent to 1% of global GDP, GP claims that its scenario shows that cost savings would be around US$750 billion per year.

    The report also tries to look beyond 2030, to show how renewables can provide up to half of the world’s energy needs by 2050.

    The four-page section on LAC (minus Mexico, which is lumped in with Canada and the US as “OECD North America” and otherwise almost goes unmentioned) foresees 95% of LAC’s 695 GW of electricity being generated by renewables by 2050, with hydro and wind dominating new generation from renewables until 2020, then increasingly complemented by electricity from biomass, photovoltaics and solar thermal energy. Notable is how little help the report sees coming from geothermal or ocean energy.

    GP offers a “one-size-fits-all” set of policy prescriptions for ensuring the realization of its scenario: (1) phase out all subsidies for fossil fuels and nuclear energy; (2) internalize external (social and environmental) costs through “cap and trade” emissions trading; (3) mandate strict efficiency standards for all energy consuming appliances, buildings and vehicles; (4) establish legally-binding targets for renewable energy and combined heat and power (CHP) generation; (5) reform the electricity markets by guaranteeing priority access to the grid for renewable power generators; (6) provide defined and stable returns for investors, for example through feed-in tariff payments; (7) implement better labeling and disclosure mechanisms to provide more environmental product information; (8) increase research and development budgets for renewable energy and energy efficiency.

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    CEPAL/FAO. “Opportunities and Risks Arising from the Use of Bioenergy for Food Security in Latin America.” English and Spanish. 2007. 11 pp.

    An analysis of the potential impacts of bioenergy production on food security in Latin America jointly prepared by ECLAC/CEPAL and FAO for consideration by the FAO’s Committee on Food Security. The report focuses on liquid biofuels primarily used for transport, such as ethanol and biodiesel. It concludes that in LAC’s case, some of the concerns expressed, such as biofuel production detracting from planting for food crops, may be unfounded. It does see possible price implications, and worries about water-intensive and other unsustainable biofuel production technology choices, and gearing technology to help the small farmer. It makes a number of policy recommendations to maximize potential benefits and minimize possible risks.

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    Prepared by Garten Rothkopf LLC for the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). A Blueprint for Green Energy in the Americas. English. 2007. 659 pp.

    According to the IDB, this report “seeks to cut through the hype surrounding biofuels, and alternative energy writ large, and present an objective, fact-based analysis of the region’s global competitive position looking forward to 2020. It includes the most extensive study done to date on the global biofuels market, including 50 countries. The report also focuses on the challenges that lie ahead, from ensuring that the choices made are sustainable in terms of their environmental and social impact to recognizing that unprecedented investment and innovation will produce new competitive forces that will require all who would lead to adapt or fall behind”. I like that the report (1) emphasizes how the Brazilian case is different, and may remain so, from other LAC nations; (2) takes care to examine how biofuels might stack up against other energy options, both in the mix for LAC nations and in terms of competition in the global marketplace.

    For a more complete discussion of this report, see the Temas Blog review.

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    European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) and Greenpeace International (GP). [R]evolução Energética: Perspectivas para uma Energia Global Sustentável. Portuguese. 2007. 98 pp.

    This is the Brazilian edition of GP’s effort to show, through scenarios, that an energy revolution is technically and economically feasible that not only meets tough greenhouse gas emission goals and projected energy demands with less dependence on nuclear power and fossil fuels (see entry above for the global edition).  The Brazilian edition features three scenarios: the reference scenario (“business as usual”) was based on the Brazilian government’s projections/plans through 2015, a second intermediate scenario was produced by the University of São Paulo (USP), and GP’s Energy [R]evolution scenario.

    In the Reference Scenario, following current trends, energy intensity energy would increase from 297 TWh/R$ million to  558 TWh/R$ million, resulting in a final electricity consumption of 1,422 TWh by 2050, a fourfold increase in 45 years.  In the intermediate scenario produced by USP, energy generation from fuel oil and diesel  would be abolished and nuclear power would be reduced starting in 2030. In this scenario, hydropower would account for 40%, natural gas 25%, biomass 24%, wind 8% and coal 1%.  In this case, the share of renewables in the Brazilian electricity matrix would reach 76%.  The intermediate scenario also included energy efficiency measures, responsible for an economy of 413 TWh, resulting in a final consumption of 1,009 TWh, compared to the 1,422 TWh in the Reference Scenario.

    The Energy [R]evolution scenario relies heavily on renewable energy sources and energy efficiency measures, and as a result, GP calculates plants run on diesel fuel, coal and nuclear could be eliminated, and the share of gas-fired plants could be reduced.  For this scenario, in 2050 88% of the electricity produced in Brazil will come renewable sources.  Hydroelectric generation would account for 38%, followed by biomass (26%), wind (20%), natural gas (12%) and generation from photovoltaic panels (4%).

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    European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) and Greenpeace (GP). Solar Generation – Solar Electricity for over One Billion People and Two Million Jobs by 2020. English. 2006. 52 pp.

    The third edition of EPIA/GP’s study on the global market prospects for power generation from photovoltaics (PV) until the year 2020 (the first edition was released in 2001, the second in 2004). The EPIA/Greenpeace reports are excellent for a global overview of trends in photovoltaic technology development and deployment. The latest report provides plenty of detail for Europe (it is, after all, EPIA’s home market!) as well as for the countries from each geographic region spotlighted in “case studies.” Luckily one of those spotlighted is Brazil. Otherwise, though, the report provides sparse information on LAC nations.

    For a more complete discussion of this report, see the Temas Blog review.

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    Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) and Greenpeace International (GP). Global Wind Energy Outlook 2006. English. 2006. 60 pp.

    This report looks at the global market for wind energy up to 2050. Its regional breakdowns for those projections are skimpy, and the report lacks the country case studies provided in EPIA/Greenpeace report on the future of photovoltaics. The report looks briefly at the region’s two giants, Brazil and Mexico, while only noting in passing that there is unspecified “potential” in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Nicaragua and Uruguay.

    For a more complete discussion of this report, see the Temas Blog review.

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    WWF-Brasil. Agenda Elétrica Sustentável 2020: estudo de cenários para um setor elétrico brasileiro eficiente, seguro e competitivo. Portuguese. 2006. 80 pp.

    A blueprint for a sustainable energy policy for Brazil achievable by 2020 prepared by WWF and some NGO and industry allies. WWF et al envision substantially lower energy demand if Brazil pursues an aggressive energy conservation and energy efficiency strategy. WWF goes to great lengths to make the case that more coal-fired, natural gas, large hydroelectric and nuclear power plants are not needed and — if aggressively backed and promoted — wind, solar, small hydropower (PCH) and biomass (particularly sugar bagasse-fired co-generation) can meet most of the growing demand. WWF et al argue their vision will result in substantial cost savings, reduce the large public debt involved in huge new hydro and nuclear plants, create more jobs (10 million rather than 3.5 million under the BAU scenario), help keep Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and NOx) stable at 2004 levels, reduce dependency on “unstable” foreign natural gas suppliers, and reduce new inundation of lands by a factor of seven (with the lower socioeconomic impacts that implies).

    For a more complete discussion of this report, see the Temas Blog review.

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    Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina (WWF-Argentina). Reducir emisiones ahorrando energía: escenarios energéticos para la Argentina (2006-2020) con políticias de eficiencia. 2006. Spanish. 36 pp.

    This is actually the executive summary of part of a long technical study done for the Foundation by a consultant. As the title suggests, the idea is to demonstrate how Argentina can meet its projected energy consumption needs through 2020 while reducing greenhouse gas emissions without having to expand use of fossil fuels and nuclear power, primarily through conservation measures and improving efficiencies in buildings and equipment. While they provide plenty of food for thought, this report is not quite as tight and convincing as its Brazilian counterpart.

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    ECLAC/CEPAL. Especificaciones de la calidad del etanol carburante y del gasohol (mezcla de gasolina y etano) y normas técnicas para la infraestructura. 2006. Spanish. 88 pp.

    This study looks at the potential benefits of a bioethanol/gasoline (or “petrol,” as my European friends call it) mixture as a gasoline substitute, presents the specifications needed for anhydrous ethanol to be added to make a 10% mixture, as well as the quality specifications for the gasohol itself necessary to ensure proper operation of the vehicle, the useful life of the motor, and proper protection of human health and the environment. It discusses the effect each additional percentage of ethanol content has on the properties of the fuel, based primarily on data from the Brazilian experience (Brazil has added bioethanol to its motor fuel since 1931 and presently has a 25% blend). The study also includes the technical norms and methods used in Brazil for fuel analysis, details of some of the equipment used, their costs and their Brazilian providers, and Brazil’s technical norms for the fuel transport and storage. Based on its findings, the study makes several recommendations to Central American policymakers.

    Part I: http://www.eclac.cl/publicaciones/xml/6/26436/L741-1.pdf

    Part II: http://www.eclac.cl/publicaciones/xml/6/26436/L741-2.pdf

    For a more complete discussion of this report, see the Temas Blog review.

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    ECLAC/CEPAL. Especificaciones de la calidad del etanol carburante y del gasohol (mezcla de gasolina y etano) y normas técnicas para la infraestructura. 2006. Spanish. 18 pp.

    This study attempts a detailed economic analysis of the costs of local production of bioethanol using different international references. It examines the historical evolution of sugar, ethanol and gasoline, estimates the unit cost of ethanol processing and the economic viability of producing ethanol from sugar and molasses. It also suggests several complementary studies of the costs/benefits of bioethanol.

    For a more complete discussion of this report, see the Temas Blog review.

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    Horta Nogueira, Luiz A. Perspectivas de sostenibilidad energética en los países de la Comunidad Andina. ECLAC/CEPAL series Recursos Naturales e Infrastructura, No. 83. Spanish. 2005. 68pp.

    This report examines not only the current situation regarding renewable and sustainable energy sources in the Andean Community (CAN) nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela), but also its prospects and the probable economic impacts thereof. It recommends greater attention to hydroelectric and geothermal energy and the creation of a common Andean renewable energy agenda too coordinate their efforts, rationalize the use of resources and exploit synergies.

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    LAC COMMITMENTS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES UNDER 2004 BONN DECLARATION

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    CEPAL/GTZ. Renewable Energy Sources in Latin America and the Caribbean: Situation and Policy Proposals. English and Spanish. 2004. 166 pp.

    This analysis by ECLAC and GTZ looked at the situation for renewables in LAC countries circa 2004 and recommended policy directions going forward. It urged that renewables be looked at not only in the overall energy supply/demand context, but also the role they can play in economic growth, employment, rural development, universal energization, and governability of resources, particularly of water. It made recommendations in four particular areas: (1) reevaluation of the role of hydropower; (2) the contribution of renewables to the integrated development of rural communities; (3) the rational use of fuelwood; (4) the role of biomass and biofuels.

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    Altomonte, Hugo; Coviello, Manlio; Lutz, Wolfgang F. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean: Constraints and Prospects. ECLAC/CEPAL series Recursos Naturales e Infrastructura, No. 65. English. 2003. 76pp.

    This publication examines why LAC have achieved so little in energy efficiency and increased use of renewables despite two decades of talking about its importance. The authors blame a variety of factors, including lack of political will, perceived lack of public support, “liberal economic doctrine,” market power exercised by energy companies, and energy pricing and tax policies that work against energy efficiency and/or market penetration of renewables.

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    de Buen R., Ing. Odón, National Commission for Energy Conservation (CONAE). “Green Energy Market in Mexico: Background and Proposal” [Published by the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation (CEC)]. English. 2002. 11 pp.

    “Mexico’s enormous opportunities for making use of renewable energy are limited by the relatively high costs involved and the government’s budgetary restrictions. International experience demonstrates, however, that it is possible to establish mechanisms that, if advanced by the government as public policy and without implying subsidies that would create new burdens on national public funds, could serve to make use of renewable energy. This document establishes and describes the opportunities and benefits that better use of renewable energy would bring for Mexico, and based on international experience, proposes elements of what could be a Green Energy program in Mexico.” [CEC blurb]

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    Salgado, René; Altomonte, Hugo. Indicadores de Sustentabilidad Energética, 1990-99. Published by CEPAL. Spanish. 2001. 66 pp.

    The Latin American (OLADE), the UN Economic Commission for Latin America & the Caribbean (ECLAC/CEPAL) and the German technical cooperation agency (GTZ) jointly set out to develop a series of indicators on (a) risks, vulnerabilities and restrictions to socioeconomic development; (b) inequitable bias in the power supply and possible incoherencies in the use of resources; (c) external effects on the environment. This report represents the results of that project, evaluating the energy sector in various LAC nations as of 1999.

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    OLADE/CEPAL/GTZ. Energy and Sustainable Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: Guide for Energy Policymaking. English. 2000. 134 pp.

    The product of the joint project on LAC energy and sustainable development run jointly by OLADE, ECLAC/CEPAL and GTZ, this manual is intended to help energy policymakers identify the basic considerations for making energy development more sustainable, and guide them through the choice of instruments and approaches that would improve the viability of the policies formulated.

    [An updated (2003) version was released in Spanish]

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