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    Ortiz Malavasi, Laura; Schuschny, Andrés Ricardo; Gallopín, Gilberto C. Evolución de las emisiones industriales potenciales en América Latina, 1970-2000. ECLAC/CEPAL series Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo, No. 97. Spanish. 2005.8pp.

    This work attempts to estimate indirectly the evolution of environmental pollution by industry in 14 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela) over the course of three decades (1970’s, 80’s and 90’s). It is essentially an application of the World Bank’s Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS) to the region. The study looks at two aggregate pollutant types (total toxics and total metals), two specific pollutants for water and air (solids emitted to air, solids to water), and distinguishes between two groups of industrial sectors — “more contaminating” (which includes oil, petroleum refining, iron and steel, paper and pulp, non-ferrous metals, chemicals, non-metallic minerals, rubber products, wood products) and “the rest.” The study attempts to identify potential and emerging industrial pollution risks in each of the 14 nations that officials should give priority attention to.


    Correa, Maria Emilia; Flynn, Sharon; Amit, Alon. Responsabilidad social corporativa en América Latina: una visión empresarial. ECLAC/CEPAL series Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo, No. 85. Spanish. 2004. 81pp.

    This study examines the state of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) (as of 2004) among firms operating in Latin America, with a detailed look at seven nations: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and Peru. The study concludes that while CSR is increasingly gaining attention in corporate circles in the region, it questions how deeply it has affected actual corporate strategies and performance on the ground. It also suggests that the issues being stressed by initiatives in the region do not necessarily reflect local priorities.


    Kuehr, Ruediger & Williams, Eric, eds. Computers and the Environment: Understanding and Managing Their Impacts. Kluwer Academic Publishers. English. 2003. 300 pp. US$35. Order at Amazon or directly from the publishers.

    This is the product of project backed by the United Nations University (UNU). A good initial stab at a comprehensive analysis of the total environmental impact of computers – not just the waste created by end-of-life units, but the pluses and minuses created throughout the product’s life-cycle. The book tackles the environmental issues in production and use, technologies for recycling, consumer behavior, strategies of manufacturing firms (with case studies of IBM and Fujitsu), and government policies (with a particular stress on the impact of the European Union’s WEEE Directive). One key recommendation for reducing the negative environmental impacts: we should focus more on extending the lifespan of computers, particularly through policies and strategies to encourage reselling.


    Seroa da Motta, Ronaldo. Determinants of Environmental Performance in the Brazilian Industrial Sector. Published by the World Bank. English. 2003. 75pp.

    Utilizing a database compiled by the National Confederation of Industries (CNI) of answers by 325 medium- and large enterprises to questions involving environmental management practices in the reference year 1997, the author looked at three proxies of environmental performance (environmental control practices, environmental investments, operational cost ratios), with controls of actual data on market incentives, enforcement pressures and declared motivations. He claims to demonstrate that (1) Brazilian firms tend to comply at the low-sanction level; (2) demands from communities and market incentives are very influential determinants; (2) cost savings on inputs and market incentives are equally important. The author recommends the adoption of flexible pollution control instruments that take into account a firm’s various characteristics (size, sector, foreign ties, etc.) and compliance levels. He also recommends disseminating information to industry on cost savings involved by adopting environmental controls.



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