fee: per-item charge on product sales intended to cover
or defray the future waste management costs of the product.
Agenda 21: The list of programs adopted by
the Rio Summit.
chemical and biological agents intended to alter the composition of
flora or fauna, with the goal of saving them from the harmful action
of living beings considered noxious. These are generally used in agricultural
production and storage, but also in forest preserves, and even in
urban ecosystems such as gardens and parks. The products include pesticides,
herbicides, rodenticides, insecticides, defoliants, growth
stimulators and inhibitors.
Air Quality Guidelines: air quality norms recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) based on the findings of a scientific and technical panel. The AQGs are periodically updated.
label listing of food and beverage ingredients that can cause allergies
or intolerances in consumers.
Treaty (ACT): Agreement signed in 1978 by eight nations
(Bolivia, Brail, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela)
to promote scientific cooperation and development vis-a-vis the Amazon
River basin. A permanent secretariat was created in Brasilia (ATCO)
in 1995, and it was agreed to step up cooperation in areas such as
biodiversity and protection of water resources. More recently, ACTO
agreed to cooperate on climate change and combatting deforestation.
anaerobic digestion: processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen, often used to treat biodegradable waste and sewage sludge. Anaerobic digestion produces biogas.
Community (CAN): Formerly known as the Andean Common
Market (ANCOM) or Andean Pact, this Lima-based group started as a
spin-off of the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) aimed
at subregional integration, common rule on foreign investment, and
increasing the bargaining power of the five member nations. In recent
years CAN has adopted common rules on access to genetic resources, cosmetics, hygiene products and
pesticides, joint programs and strategies on biodiversity, climate change amd water resources and is developing a common agenda on other environmental and
health issues. Member nations include Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador
aquifer: stratum of permeable rock, sand,
or gravel that can store and supply groundwater to wells and springs.
Association of Caribbean States (ACS):
25-nation entity created in 1994 to promote cooperation and integration
between CARICOM, SICA, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti,
Mexico and Venezuela. ACS' primary areas of work are trade, sustainable
tourism, transport, and natural disasters. The ACS secretariat is
based in Port of Spain, Trinidad.
Amendment: An Amendment to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes adopted in 1995 but not yet in force pending ratifications by 3/4 of the Basel Convention Parties. It would ban transboundary shipments of hazardous wastes for any reason, including recycling, from the member states of the European Community, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and Liechtenstein to other Parties (mostly developing countries).
Convention: international treaty on international movements
of wastes, especially hazardous wastes, signed at Basel, Switzerland
in 1989 and entered into force on 05 May 1992. The Convention currently has 179 countries and the EU as Parties.
accumulation of contaminants (such as mercury) by living organisms.
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): measurement, often used in wastewater policy, of the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present at certain temperature over a specific time period.
capable of decomposing rapidly by microorganisms under natural conditions
(whether aerobic or anaerobic).
a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines derived from natural
oils like soybean oil. Biodiesel can be used in any concentration
with petroleum-based diesel fuel in existing diesel engines with little
or no modification. Biodiesel differs from raw vegetable oil in that
it has had the glycerin chemically removed from the oil.