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Temas Glossary
TEMAS ACTUALES GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSUMER AND EHS LAW AND POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

A-B     C     D     E     F-G     H     I     J-M     N-O     P     Q-S     T-U     V-W     X-Z
misleading advertising: advertising that misleads the consumer, either directly or by implication, about any material fact or characteristic of a product or service.

Montreal Protocol: 1987 protocol to the Vienna Convention on Protection of the Ozone Layer which controls CFCs, halons and other substances (methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, HCFCs, methyl bromide) deemed to deplete the Earth's protective ozone layer. The Protocol was amended in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Montreal (1997) and Beijing (1999) to tighten deadlines and add new substances.

mutagen: a substance which can cause changes in the DNA of cells (i.e., cause mutations).

mutagenic: able to cause mutations.

Nagoya Protocol: protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity, adopted in 2010 in Nagoya, Japan, covering access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of such resources.

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs): although the term has been used in climate change negotiations since the 13th UNFCCC Conference of Parties held in 2007, as yet there is no agreed definition or single set of criteria for what constitutes a NAMA. Generally speaking, NAMAs are voluntary greenhouse gas mitigation measures that contribute to the transformation of an economy towards low-carbon growth.

nongovernmental organization (NGO): as the name implies, a group not officially linked to or controlled by a government. NGOs represent different segments of civil society, such as industry sectors, environmentalists, trade unions, consumers, churches, charities, etc. that seek access to the policy process.

non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation: electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 0.16 micrometers. It does not alter the structure of atoms, but can heat tissue and may harm the health of living beings. Examples include ultraviolet, radio waves, microwaves, and electromagnetic fields from high-voltage power transmission lines.

North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC): a Montreal-based international organization created by Canada, Mexico and the US under a side agreement to NAFTA known as the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. The CEC was created to address regional environmental concerns, help prevent potential conflicts related to environmental matters, and promote effective enforcement of environmental laws.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): free trade agreement between Canada, Mexico and the US.

North American Regional Action Plan (NARAP): A common plan of action on persistent toxic substances (PTS), including specific national commitments (such as new programs, measures and norms), commonly agreed by Canada, Mexico and the US.

nutrition labeling: information on a food or beverage label that relates to energy value and to certain nutrients present in significant amounts, such as protein, carbohydrate, fat, fibre, sodium, vitamins and minerals.

objective responsibility: concept in liability law where a party can be held liable for damage even when they followed required law.

organic waste: waste derived from animal and plant materials. In the waste management context, this usually refers to food and yard wastes.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD): Paris-based organization created in 1960 to promote sustainable economic growth and employment of its member states while maintaining financial stability. The OECD's 34 member states include most European nations plus Australia, Canada, Chile, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the US and South Korea. OECD norms related to environment often become or strongly influence global standards and practices in areas such as biotechnology, chemicals, detergents, energy, wastes and the use of economic instruments.
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' Recycling & Solid Waste Policy
in Latin America and the Caribbean '
by Keith E. Ripley

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