of American States (OAS): an association of Western Hemisphere,
mostly Latin American and Caribbean, countries that seeks to promote
more economic and social cooperation between member states. The OAS's
Office for Sustainable Development and Environment promotes regional
cooperation on water management, environmental health, biodiversity,
renewable energy, and trade and environment.
of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS): St. Lucia-based organization
created in 1981 by seven small CARICOM nations to promote closer cooperation
and unified policy coordination in issues such as environmental protection,
pharmaceuticals, agriculture, export policy, education. OECS now has
9 member states (Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat,
St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines) and two
associate members (Anguilla, British Virgin Islands). OECS has created
an Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court which serves as the superior court
of record for the 9 member states.
chemical pesticides that contain phosphorus. They are short-lived
but very toxic during the application phase.
depletion: destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer
which shields the Earth from ultraviolet radiation harmful to biological
Pan American Center for Environmental Engineering
& Sciences (CEPIS): Lima-based "scientific center" of
PAHO which traditionally has specialized in advising LAC nations on
the technical aspects of managing sanitation and wastes and providing
potable water. CEPIS has also done work on other environmental health
issues, such as air pollution.
Pan American Health
Organization (PAHO): Washington DC-based health agency
started in 1902 as the Pan American Sanitary Bureau to promote cooperation
among health agencies throughout the Americas. When the WHO was created
later, PAHO was designated as its regional office for the Western
Pan American Network for the Drug
Regulatory Harmonization (PANDRH/Red PARF): created by
the Second Pan American Conference for Drug Regulatory Harmonization
in 1999 to promote common guidelines and harmonization on drug registration
and safety. PAHO serves as secretariat. PANDRH currently has working
groups on GLP, GMP, GCP, counterfeiting, classification, registration,
pharmacopeias, medicinal plants, pharmacovigilance, vaccines, and
liquid or solid particles such as dust, smoke, mist, fumes or smog.
parts per million (ppm): a way of expressing
tiny concentrations of pollutants in air, water, soil, human tissue,
food or other products.
microorganisms that can cause disease in other organisms or in humans,
animals and plants.
a byproduct of aluminum smelting which has been used as the substitute
for CFCs in manufacturing semiconductors. PFCs are one of the six
greenhouse gas groups targeted by the Kyoto Protocol for their global
in environment policy, an advance deposit paid by a potential polluter
in order to guarantee compliance with environmental or natural resource
management requirements. If the depositor meets the requirements,
he is refunded the bond, if he fails to, some or all of the bond is
used to repair any resulting environmental damage.
organic pollutants (POPs): organic (i.e., carbon-based)
chemical substances that possess a particular combination of physical
and chemical properties such that, once released into the environment,
they: (1) remain intact for exceptionally long periods of time (many
years); (2) become widely distributed throughout the environment as
a result of natural processes involving soil, water and, most notably,
air; (3) accumulate in the fatty tissue of living organisms including
humans, and are found at higher concentrations at higher levels in
the food chain; and (4) are toxic to both humans and wildlife.