Temas Glossary

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Organization of American States (OAS): an association of Western Hemisphere, mostly Latin American and Caribbean, countries that seeks to promote more economic and social cooperation between member states. The OAS's Office for Sustainable Development and Environment promotes regional cooperation on water management, environmental health, biodiversity, renewable energy, and trade and environment.

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS): St. Lucia-based organization created in 1981 by seven small CARICOM nations to promote closer cooperation and unified policy coordination in issues such as environmental protection, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, export policy, education. OECS now has 9 member states (Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines) and two associate members (Anguilla, British Virgin Islands). OECS has created an Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court which serves as the superior court of record for the 9 member states.

organophosphates: chemical pesticides that contain phosphorus. They are short-lived but very toxic during the application phase.

ozone depletion: destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer which shields the Earth from ultraviolet radiation harmful to biological life.

Pan American Center for Environmental Engineering & Sciences (CEPIS): Lima-based "scientific center" of PAHO which traditionally has specialized in advising LAC nations on the technical aspects of managing sanitation and wastes and providing potable water. CEPIS has also done work on other environmental health issues, such as air pollution.

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO): Washington DC-based health agency started in 1902 as the Pan American Sanitary Bureau to promote cooperation among health agencies throughout the Americas. When the WHO was created later, PAHO was designated as its regional office for the Western Hemisphere.

Pan American Network for the Drug Regulatory Harmonization (PANDRH/Red PARF): created by the Second Pan American Conference for Drug Regulatory Harmonization in 1999 to promote common guidelines and harmonization on drug registration and safety. PAHO serves as secretariat. PANDRH currently has working groups on GLP, GMP, GCP, counterfeiting, classification, registration, pharmacopeias, medicinal plants, pharmacovigilance, vaccines, and drug promotion.

particulates: fine liquid or solid particles such as dust, smoke, mist, fumes or smog.

parts per million (ppm): a way of expressing tiny concentrations of pollutants in air, water, soil, human tissue, food or other products.

pathogens: microorganisms that can cause disease in other organisms or in humans, animals and plants.

perfluorocarbons (PFCs): a byproduct of aluminum smelting which has been used as the substitute for CFCs in manufacturing semiconductors. PFCs are one of the six greenhouse gas groups targeted by the Kyoto Protocol for their global warming potential.

performance bonds: in environment policy, an advance deposit paid by a potential polluter in order to guarantee compliance with environmental or natural resource management requirements. If the depositor meets the requirements, he is refunded the bond, if he fails to, some or all of the bond is used to repair any resulting environmental damage.

persistent organic pollutants (POPs): organic (i.e., carbon-based) chemical substances that possess a particular combination of physical and chemical properties such that, once released into the environment, they: (1) remain intact for exceptionally long periods of time (many years); (2) become widely distributed throughout the environment as a result of natural processes involving soil, water and, most notably, air; (3) accumulate in the fatty tissue of living organisms including humans, and are found at higher concentrations at higher levels in the food chain; and (4) are toxic to both humans and wildlife.
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' Recycling & Solid Waste Policy
in Latin America and the Caribbean '
by Keith E. Ripley

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