registration: the authorization for the manufacture,
import, sale or otherwise placing on the market of a product governed
by the Sanitary Code -- usually at minimum cosmetics, foods, beverages
and pharmaceuticals, but also sometimes including dietary supplement,
medical devices, pesticides and even personal hygiene products.
sanitary vigilance: a market surveillance
system intended to detect incidents/accidents prejudicial to human
health and safety, identify their origin and instituting measures
to address the risks identified.
services or systems for the collection, transport, treatment and sanitary
disposal of wastewater, excretions and solid wastes.
legislation: second tier of national legislation, usually
implementing a specific law or international treaty obligation. In
most LAC nations, this comprises decrees (issued by the President)
and regulations (which can be issued by a Ministry).
landfill: A specially designed landfill intended to safely
hold hazardous wastes. At a minimum they include an "impermeable"
liner and a management system for gases and leachate. Some also include
special divisions ("cells") for different types of hazardous wastes
to prevent them from mixing.
a holding area for wastewater, usually buried underground, where heavier
particles sink to the bottom for removal and disposal.
waste and wastewater produced by residences and commercial establishments
and discharged into sewers.
sludge produced by municipal treatment plants.
semi-solid residue, often created by air or water treatment processes.
smog: tropospheric ozone.
power: heat or electricity generated using the sun's
solid waste: non-liquid,
non-soluble materials that contain complex, and sometimes hazardous
substances. Solid waste can be anything from ordinary household garbage
to industrial wastes.
South American Union (UNASUR):
Quito-based intergovernmental union conceived primarily as a vehicle to integrate the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR) with the Andean Community (CAN), although membership is open to all 12 South American nations, including those not belong to either CAN or MERCOSUR (such as Chile, Guyana and Suriname). While signed by Heads of State in 2008, the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty did not come into effect until 2011, after the 10th ratification was deposited. UNASUR has 9 Ministerial Councils (including ones for energy and health), and is expected to eventually have a consultative South American Parliament and a "Bank of the South" monetary fund.
SPAW Protocol: The 1990 Protocol on Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife of the Cartagena Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment in the Wider Caribbean Region creates lists of protected flora (Annex I), fauna (Annex II) and species to be maintained at a sustainable level (Annex III). The Protocol also contains detailed provisions addressing, inter alia, the establishment of protected areas and buffer zones for in situ conservation of wildlife, as well as national and regional cooperative measures for the protection of species, the introduction of nonnative or genetically altered species, environmental impact assessment, and research. The Protocol entered into force in 2000 and currently has 15 Parties.
simply put, any solid or semi-solid waste that, due to its quantity,
volume, weight or characteristics has been declared by authorities
as requiring special handling and disposal. Every jurisdiction has
its own list based on local conditions, but usually the list includes
items which during their use are not considered hazardous, but at
the end of their useful product life, can become so as a waste. While
the lists vary, most include C&D wastes, used motor oil and lubricants,
tires, batteries, white goods, end-of-life electronics and vehicles,
and sludge. Some also include non-returnable packaging wastes, expired
medicines and household hazardous wastes.