Temas Glossary

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sanitary registration: the authorization for the manufacture, import, sale or otherwise placing on the market of a product governed by the Sanitary Code -- usually at minimum cosmetics, foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals, but also sometimes including dietary supplement, medical devices, pesticides and even personal hygiene products.

sanitary vigilance: a market surveillance system intended to detect incidents/accidents prejudicial to human health and safety, identify their origin and instituting measures to address the risks identified.

sanitation: services or systems for the collection, transport, treatment and sanitary disposal of wastewater, excretions and solid wastes.

secondary legislation: second tier of national legislation, usually implementing a specific law or international treaty obligation. In most LAC nations, this comprises decrees (issued by the President) and regulations (which can be issued by a Ministry).

security landfill: A specially designed landfill intended to safely hold hazardous wastes. At a minimum they include an "impermeable" liner and a management system for gases and leachate. Some also include special divisions ("cells") for different types of hazardous wastes to prevent them from mixing.

septic tank: a holding area for wastewater, usually buried underground, where heavier particles sink to the bottom for removal and disposal.

sewage: waste and wastewater produced by residences and commercial establishments and discharged into sewers.

sewage sludge: sludge produced by municipal treatment plants.

sludge: semi-solid residue, often created by air or water treatment processes.

smog: tropospheric ozone.

solar power: heat or electricity generated using the sun's radiation.

solid waste: non-liquid, non-soluble materials that contain complex, and sometimes hazardous substances. Solid waste can be anything from ordinary household garbage to industrial wastes.

South American Union (UNASUR): Quito-based intergovernmental union conceived primarily as a vehicle to integrate the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR) with the Andean Community (CAN), although membership is open to all 12 South American nations, including those not belong to either CAN or MERCOSUR (such as Chile, Guyana and Suriname). While signed by Heads of State in 2008, the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty did not come into effect until 2011, after the 10th ratification was deposited. UNASUR has 9 Ministerial Councils (including ones for energy and health), and is expected to eventually have a consultative South American Parliament and a "Bank of the South" monetary fund.

SPAW Protocol: The 1990 Protocol on Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife of the Cartagena Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment in the Wider Caribbean Region creates lists of protected flora (Annex I), fauna (Annex II) and species to be maintained at a sustainable level (Annex III). The Protocol also contains detailed provisions addressing, inter alia, the establishment of protected areas and buffer zones for in situ conservation of wildlife, as well as national and regional cooperative measures for the protection of species, the introduction of nonnative or genetically altered species, environmental impact assessment, and research. The Protocol entered into force in 2000 and currently has 15 Parties.

special wastes: simply put, any solid or semi-solid waste that, due to its quantity, volume, weight or characteristics has been declared by authorities as requiring special handling and disposal. Every jurisdiction has its own list based on local conditions, but usually the list includes items which during their use are not considered hazardous, but at the end of their useful product life, can become so as a waste. While the lists vary, most include C&D wastes, used motor oil and lubricants, tires, batteries, white goods, end-of-life electronics and vehicles, and sludge. Some also include non-returnable packaging wastes, expired medicines and household hazardous wastes.
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' Recycling & Solid Waste Policy
in Latin America and the Caribbean '
by Keith E. Ripley

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