|Stockholm Convention: international treaty on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) signed at Stockholm, Sweden in 2000. The 12 initial POPs covered include 8 pesticides (aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, and toxaphene), 2 industrial chemicals (PCBs and hexachlorobenzene, which is also a pesticide), and 2 unwanted by-products of combustion and industrial processes (dioxins and furans). In 2009, 9 new substances were added: c-pentabromodiphenyl ether; chlordecone; hexabromobiphenyl (HBB); alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (alphaHCH); betaHCH; lindane; c-octabromodiphenyl ether, pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), its salts and PFOS fluoride. In 2011 the pesticide endosulfan was added.
Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM):
a multi-stakeholder, multi-sectoral policy framework launched by the International Conferece on Chemicals Management (ICCM) in 2006 that seeks to promote the sound management of chemicals.
defined by the OECD as "policies that require that the producer and/or seller receive the product or its packaging post-consumption."
residue of raw materials or waste separated out during the processing
of mineral ores.
technological waste: see "e-scrap"
teratogen: a substance
that can cause birth defects.
final tier of national legislation, usually offering interpretation
on one or more technical points in a piece of secondary legislation.
thermal pollution: discharge of heated
water from industrial sources that can affect the life processes of
of causing injury or damage to a living organism. Each government
defines what criteria are used to determine toxicity - in many OECD
nations it is based on how many doses of a substance it takes to kill
half of a group of test animals ("lethal dose 50 - LD50" test). Some
LAC nations, rather than insist on submission of new test data, use
the toxics lists of WHO or certain OECD nations (such as Canada, US
transgenics: Organisms that
have had foreign DNA integrated into their genome. "Transgenic" has
also become popular (but erroneous) shorthand for any genetically
modified organism (GMO).
Treaty of Asunción:
treaty creating the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR).
unfair contract terms: terms in consumer contracts
which authorities have either outlawed or tend to declare invalid
because it violates the good faith principle of contract law by creating
a significant imbalance, to the detriment of the consumer, in the
parties' rights and obligations. Example: a clause irrevocably binding
the consumer to terms with which he had no real opportunity of becoming
acquainted before the conclusion of the contract.
Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF): begun in 1946 as a
temporary, emergency fund to aid children in war-ravaged Europe and
China. It was later switched to helping children in developing countries
and was made a permanent UN agency based in New York. UNICEF has become
more and more involved in all health and environment issues that affect
children and their mothers. For example, in LAC it started a campaign
to get waste-picking families out of landfills and into other productive
activities and educated (most are illiterate).
Nations Consumer Protection Guidelines: nonbinding guidelines
on common elements of consumer policy approved by the UN General Assembly
in 1987. Specific actions were prescribed in eight categories: physical
safety; protection of economic interests; safety and quality standards;
distribution facilities for essential goods and services; consumer
redress; consumer education; product specific measures (food, pharmaceuticals,
water); international cooperation. The Guidelines have been used by
many LAC governments as a template for their national framework laws
on consumer protection.
United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP): UNDP was formed in 1966 from the merger
of a UN technical assistance program and a Special Fund. UNDP sets
up country programs only at the request of foreign governments. UNDP
country programs coordinate development activities in every economic
and social sector, including environment, sanitation, health and even