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Temas Glossary
TEMAS ACTUALES GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSUMER AND EHS LAW AND POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

A-B     C     D     E     F-G     H     I     J-M     N-O     P     Q-S     T-U     V-W     X-Z

biodiversity: see biological diversity.

bioethics: the study of ethical issues raised by research on living beings and the applications of that research.

biofuel: fuel produced from dry organic matter or combustible oils produced by plants. "Biofuels" includes wood, vegetable oils (such as soybean), alcohols (from fermented sugar), and black liquor from the paper manufacturing process.

biogas: methane-rich gas produced by the produced by bacterial degradation of organic matter, as in waste decomposition in a landfill or the intentional fermentation of animal dung, human sewage or crop residues in an ait-tight container. It can be used as fuel for stoves, lamps, small electric generators, and in some experiments underway in Latin America, to run public cars and buses. The residues of biogas production can be used as a low-grade organic fertilizer.

biological diversity: the full range of variety and variability within and among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur, and encompasses ecosystem or community diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity.

biomass: the total dry organic matter or stored energy content of living organisms. Biomass can be used as fuel either by direct combustion (i.e., burning wood) or indirectly by extracting combustible oils or fermenting to an alcohol (e.g., sugar).

biosafety: the safe handling, transfer and use of living organisms modified through biotechnology.

carbon credit: a tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) or the mass of another greenhouse gas with a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) equivalent to one metric ton of CO2.

carbon sequestration: the long-term storage of carbon or CO2 through such methods as afforestation, reforestation, ocean fertilization, or agricultural practices to enhance soil carbon.

carbon tax: a fuel tax based on the fuel's carbon content, usually intended as measure to combat climate change.

Caribbean Community (CARICOM): the entity created by treaty in 1973 to replace the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) into a true common market. CARICOM's secretariat is located in Georgetown, Guyana. Membership includes the English-speaking Caribbean nations plus Belize, Haiti and Suriname.

Caribbean Consumer Council (CCC): St. Lucia-based organization created in 2005 to lobby CARICOM on consumer interests involving its Single Market and Economy (CSME). The Council will also (1) act as an advisory body to consumer groups in the region; (2) advise on and recommend consumer legislation; (3) provide CARICOM consumers with information and fraud, rackets, false advertising, harmful products, unsafe machines and equipment.

Caribbean Environmental Health Institue (CEHI): St. Lucia-based entity created by CARICOM in 1988 to implement the 1979 Caribbean Environmental Health Strategy. CEHI has 16 member states -- all the CARICOM nations except Haiti and Suriname, plus Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands and the Turks & Caicos.

Cartagena Convention: Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region, concluded in Cartagena in 1983. The Convention requires the adoption of measures aimed at preventing, reducing and controlling (1) pollution from ships; (2) pollution caused by dumping; (3) pollution from sea-bed activities; (4) airborne pollution; (5) pollution from land-based sources and activities. The Convention has been supplemented by protocols on oil spills (1983), protected areas and wildlife (SPAW) (2000), and pollution from land-based sources and activities (LBS) (1999).

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' Recycling & Solid Waste Policy
in Latin America and the Caribbean '
by Keith E. Ripley

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