Temas Glossary

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Cartagena Protocol: a protocol (a subsidiary agreement) to the Convention on Biological diversity that establishes procedures for regulating the import and export from one country to another of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology.

Central American Commission on Environment & Development (CCAD): Organ of the Central American Integration System (SICA) created in 1989 to coordinate work on integrating environmental and natural resources policies of the member states, as well as negotiate regional instruments (usually conventions) on these subjects. CCAD's original member nations were Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua; Belize, Panama and the Dominican Republic have since joined. The main secretariat offices of CCAD are located in El Salvador.

Central American Economic Integration Subsystem: Created by the 1993 Guatemala Protocol to the 1960 General Treaty of Central American Economic Integration ("Treaty of Managua"), the Subsystem seeks the ultimate goal of Central American Economic Union through voluntary, gradual, complementary and progressive economic integration among Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua (Panama is in negotiations to join). The Subsystem focuses on trade-related matters, primarily tariffs, customs cooperation, and agreeing common technical regulations. The Subsystem's administrative and technical body is the Secretariat of Central American Economic Integration (SIECA), and its chief decision-making body is the Council of Economic Integration Ministers (COMIECO).

Central American Integration System (SICA): institutional framework for regional integration created in 1991 to replace the (non-functional) Central American Common Market (CACM). The six founding members of SICA were Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama; Belize joined later and the Dominican Republic has been given associate status. The main secretariat offices are located in El Salvador.

Central American Technical Regulation (RTCA): technical regulation adopted by the Council of Economic Integration Ministers (COMIECO) whose implementation is obligatory for the five nations of the Central American Economic Integration Subsystem: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.

certified organic: product certified by either a private or government body to have been produced and processed without artificial inputs. All organic certification programs certify that the product was produced without food irradiation, GMOs or sewage sludge; most also certify against the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

chemical oxygen demand (COD): a measurement of the amount of organic matter in wastewater that can be oxidized (broken into simpler compounds) by chemicals.

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): organic compounds formed of carbon, chlorine (Cl2) and fluorine (F2) whose molecules normally do not react with other substances. CFCs commonly have been used as cooling agents, cleaning solvents and foam blowing agents. CFCs have been shown to deplete the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer and thus are the subject of controls and phase-out under the Montreal Protocol.

clean development mechanism (CDM): A Kyoto Protocol program that enables Annex I Parties (listed in Annex B of the Protocol, most of them OECD nations) to finance emission-reduction or emissions-avoiding projects in the countries of non-Annex I Parties (mostly developing countries) and receive credit for reductions against their own emissions limitation targets.

climate change: as defined by the UNFCCC: a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability over comparable time periods.

Codex Alimentarius: the name given to the body of international standards on foodstuffs created by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission.

Codex Alimentarius Commission: Joint FAO/WHO body charged with setting food standards, both in the name of consumer protection and promoting international trade in foodstuffs. Commission standards, while voluntary, are often adopted into national law.

coliform: microorganism found in the intestinal tract of animals and human beings. When found in water it indicates fecal pollution and potentially hazardous bacterial contamination.

Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR/MERCOSUL): Regional integration pact launched as the Southern Cone Common Market by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay. Venezuela became a full member in 2012. Beyond creating a common external tariff and liberalizing trade and investment flows between the four, MERCOSUR has adopted coordination and harmonization programs on health and environment programs. Common rules have been adopted on such issues as cosmetics, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and transport of dangerous goods. Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru have associate status with MERCOSUR, while Bolivia has applied to become a full member.

Community of Latin America and the Caribbean States (CELAC): regional bloc created in December 2011 at a summit of heads of state through signature of the Declaration of Caracas. Its membership includes 33 LAC countries, but excludes Canada, the US, and the region's British, Dutch and French territories. Among the issues targeted for CELAC coordination are energy and environmental protection.

comparative advertising: comparing the product or service of one undertaking with that of another. Done properly and fairly, comparative advertising can be useful to the consumer, but at times it is done in a misleading way or with the intention of denigrating the other product or service.
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' Recycling & Solid Waste Policy
in Latin America and the Caribbean '
by Keith E. Ripley

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