Temas Glossary

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Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion: Set of ethical guidelines approved by the WHO Assembly in 1988 as consensus agreement on how pharmaceuticals should be promoted and advertised. There have been repeated attempts in LAC nations to adopt national guidelines based on the WHO model.

extended producer responsibility (EPR): defined by the OECD as an environmental policy approach in which a producer's responsibility (physical and/or financial) for its product and product packaging goes into the post-consumer phase of the product's life-cycle (i.e., they take responsibility for the proper treatment, recycling and/or disposal of the product). There are different types of EPR, such as product take-back, product stewardship programs, advanced disposal fees, and mandatory deposit-return systems.

e-waste: -- see "e-scrap"

fair-trade certified: organic product certified as originating from small producers and that part of the premium paid for the product benefits the small producers and their community.

flash point: lowest temperature at which a liquid or solid will produce enough vapor to form a flammable air-vapor mixture near its surface. The lower the flash point, the greater the fire risk.

Forum of Environment Ministers of Latin America and the Caibbean (FEM): biennial forum created in 1985 following several annual intergovernmental meetings of the region's environment ministers to cooperate on environment issues of common interest. FME secretariat services are provided by UNEP's Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (ROLAC). Since adoption of the Latin American and Caribbean Initiative for Sustainable Development (ILAC) in 2002 to guide its work, FME has been assisted by an Inter-Agency Technical Committee (ITC), coordinated by UNEP, that includes the IDB, UNDP, ECLAC and the World Bank.

Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: International agreement concluded under WHO auspices requires ratifying nations to restrict tobacco advertising, sponsorship and promotion; establish new packaging and labeling of tobacco products; establish clean indoor air controls; and strengthen legislation to combat tobacco smuggling.

fuel efficiency: strictly speaking, the amount of work obtained (such as distance traveled) for the amount of fuel consumed (usually by a vehicle), usually expressed as mi/gal or km/l. The higher the efficiency, the less fuel needed to do the work.

furans: 135 compounds produced unintentionally from many of the same processes that produce dioxins, and also during the production of PCBs. Furans are structurally similar to dioxins and share many of their toxic effects. They have been detected in emissions from waste incinerators and automobiles.

genetic diversity: the combination of different genes found within a population of a single species, and the pattern of variation found within different populations of the same species.

genetically modified organism (GMO): an organism whose genetic structure has been deliberately altered, whether through natural processes, genetic engineering, cloning or mutagenesis.

Global Environment Fund (GEF): The GEF was created in 1991 to help developing countries fund projects and programs that are deemed to contribute to protecting the global environment. Money is provided on a four-year cycle by donor nations. For now, GEF grants support projects related to biodiversity, climate change, international waters, land degradation, protecting the Earth's ozone layer, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS): an internationally-harmonized approach to classification of chemicals by types of hazard and harmonized hazard communication elements, including labels and safety data sheets. GHS aims at ensuring that information on physical hazards and toxicity from chemicals are available during the handling, transport and use of these chemicals, and can provide a basis for harmonizing chemical rules and regulations at national, regional and global levels. Work on GHS is overseen by a Sub-Committee of Experts serviced by UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).

good clinical practice (GCP): ethical and scientific quality standards for designing, conducting, recording and reporting trials that involve the participation of human subjects. The first international GCP guidelines were agreed by the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for the Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) created by the European Union, US and Japan; these are slowly being picked up by LAC nations as well.

good laboratory practice (GLP): Standards first developed in the OECD for laboratories conducting tests for toxicity, mutagenicity, etc. in order to meet regulatory requirements. Similar specialized guidelines have been developed by FAO, WHO.

good manufacturing practices (GMP): Standards set on quality control in manufacturing, usually used for cosmetics, food and pharmaceuticals and often the basis for dropping technical barriers to trade.
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' Recycling & Solid Waste Policy
in Latin America and the Caribbean '
by Keith E. Ripley

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