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Temas Glossary
TEMAS ACTUALES GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSUMER AND EHS LAW AND POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

A-B     C     D     E     F-G     H     I     J-M     N-O     P     Q-S     T-U     V-W     X-Z
Ibero-American Conference: a series of conferences, meetings and summits for economic, social and cultural cooperation drawing together top officials from Spain and Portugal with those from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. It arose from the series of annual Ibero-American Summits launched in Guadalajara, Mexico in 1991. In 2003 a permanent secretariat for this process, the Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB), was created to provide institutional and technical aid to the Conference.

ignitable: has a flash point of less than 60° C or 140° F.

incineration: destruction of waste by controlled burning at high temperatures.

informatics: term commonly used in Latin America for information technology.

inorganic wastes: generally speaking, anything not directly derived from plants and animals and thus does not degrade easily or quickly. In the waste management policy context, it most often refers to metals, plastics, glass and sometimes even paper/board products.

integrated waste management (IWM): complementary use of several practices to handle waste safely and effectively. IWM techniques include source reduction, recycling, composting, energy recovery and landfilling.

Inter-American Commission on Organic Agriculture (CIAO): 18-nation technical commission of national authorities in charge of organic agriculture, formed in 2008 by the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) to promote organic agriculture in the Americas and facilitate trade in its products. CIAO's membership does not include any CARICOM members or Cuba. IICA serves as CIAO's technical secretariat.

Inter-American Development Bank (IDB): Washington DC-based regional development bank created in 1959 to accelerate economic and social development in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Bank's primary functions include mobilizing resources to finance the development of member countries, encouraging private investment, and providing technical assistance for the preparation, financing and implementation of development plans and projects.

Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA): founded in 1942 as a standalone institute, it became a specialized agency for all agricultural and rural development issues of the Organization of American States (OAS) when the OAS was formed in 1948. IICA is based in San José, Costa Rica.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): a scientific intergovernmental body created to provide comprehensive scientific assessments of current scientific, technical and socioeconomic information worldwide about the risk of climate change caused by human activity, its potential environmental and socioeconomic consequences, and possible options for adapting to these consequences or mitigating the effects. The IPCC was created by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and UN Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1988, but later was endorsed by the UN General Assembly (UNGA). The IPCC secretariat is hosted in Geneva.

International Agency for Research on Center (IARC): a specialized subsidiary body of the WHO created in 1965 to coordinate and conduct research on the causes of human cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and to develop scientific strategies for cancer control. IARC is located in Lyon, France, and its work funded by 24 nations (Brazil is the only LAC nation currently participating).

International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB): An international organization created in 1983 with the help of UNIDO to conduct advanced research and training in molecular biology and biotechnology with a view of serving the needs of developing countries. ICGEB's two "component laboratories" are in Trieste, Italy, and New Delhi, India. The agreement creating the ICGEB has 86 signatory states (16 LAC nations), 63 (13 LAC) of which have ratified and become member states.

International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage ("IOPC Fund"): Fund created under IMO auspices to help cover damages caused by oil spills from tankers. Under the agreements underpinning the Fund, the tanker owner is liable to pay compensation up to a certain limit, after which compensation is available from the 1992 Fund if the damage occurs in a Fund member state.

International Labor Organization (ILO): Geneva-based UN specialized agency originally created by the League of Nations in 1919 as the International Labor Office. The ILO creates international instruments (usually binding conventions and nonbinding recommendations) on all issues involving work, employment and social security, including occupational safety and health (OSH) issues. Unique to the ILO is the tripartite structure (government-industry-labor) used in all of its bodies. ILO standards on OSH issues are the basis of many LAC regulations, and its Chemicals and Industrial Accidents conventions are either being ratified or used as models in many LAC nations.

International Maritime Organization (IMO): the London-based United Nations specialized agency created in 1959 to facilitate cooperation among governments in "technical matters of all kinds affecting shipping engaged in international trade," including the adoption of "highest practicable standards" in matters regarding maritime safety, efficient navigation, and the prevention and control of pollution caused by ships and crafts operating in the marine environment. IMO oversees MARPOL, the London Dumping Convention and a series of treaties on prevention and response to oil pollution.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Geneva-based body created in 1947 as a replacement for the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA). The ISO is the lead nongovernmental agency for international standardization of technical specifications. It is loosely affiliated with the United Nations.

International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA): Abu Dhabi-based intergovernmental organization created in 2009 as the principal platform for international cooperation on renewable energy. Currently it has 110 member States and the EU, 11 of them (Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Uruguay) from Latin America and the Caribbean.

International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA): an international commodity agreement first concluded in 1983 under UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) auspices; a new ITTA negotiated in 2006 entered into force in 2011. Unlike most commodity agreements, the ITTA accords equal importance to trade and sustainable development. The ITTA is overseen by the ITTO.

International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO): intergovernmental organization created in 1986 to oversee the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA) and its related policy agreements and projects to promote the sustainable management, use and trade of tropical forest resources. The ITTO is based in Yokohama, Japan. Its 63 members (9 from Latin America)represent some 80% of the world's tropical forests and 90% of the global tropical timber trade.
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' Recycling & Solid Waste Policy
in Latin America and the Caribbean '
by Keith E. Ripley

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