Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC):
organization created in 1995 to promote cooperation and coordination
among international organizations working on chemical issues, namely
UNEP, ILO, FAO, WHO, OECD, the UN Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO) and the UN Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR). UNDP
and the World Bank participate as "observers." WHO provides secretariat
services for the IOMC.
something that, through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with
the skin or mucous membrane, can cause inflammation.
Protocol: protocol to the UNFCCC adopted in Kyoto, Japan
in 1997. It requires countries listed in its Annex B (mostly OECD
nations) to meet by 2008 12 differentiated reduction targets for their
emissions of a "basket" of greenhouse gases -- carbon dioxide (CO2); methane (CH4); nitrous oxide (N2O); hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs); perfluorocarbons (PFCs); and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) -- relative to 1990 levels.
landfill: a waste disposal site for which
measures have been taken in the planning, construction and operational
phases in order to minimize pollution coming from the deposited wastes.
landfill gas: the gas produced by the
decomposition of wastes within sanitary landfills. Landfill gas usually
consists principally of methane and carbon dioxide.
American and Caribbean Initiative for Sustainable Development (ILAC): an initiative adopted by an extraordinary meeting of the Forum of Environment Ministers of Latin America and the Caribbean (FEM) in August 2002, on the sidelines of the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa. ILAC features 38 reference indicators in the thematic areas of biodiversity, water resources management, human settlements and sustainable cities, social issues (including health), economic aspects (including consumption and production patterns), and institutional issues. ILAC is implemented through a Regional Action Plan updated biennially and a series of working groups recommending regional priorities, strategies, lines of actions and projects.
Latin American Development Bank (CAF): Caracas-based financial institution formed in 1968 (and operational since 1970) as the Andean Development Corporation to support integration among the members of the then-Andean Common Market (Ancom), now the Andean Community (CAN). CAF's Articles of Agreement were altered in 2007 to open its membership and lending operations to non-CAN nations and changing its name to the Latin American Development Bank (but retaining the CAF acronym). CAF now has 18 shareholder countries - 16 LAC nations plus Portugal and Spain.
American Energy Organization (OLADE): Quito-based organization
of 27 Latin American and Caribbean nations dedicated to fostering
policy cooperation in energy topics, including environmental aspects.
American Parliament (Parlatino): Panama City-based regional consultative assembly with participants nominated by its 22 member national legislatures. Parlatino has developed model laws used by national legislators as the basis for their proposals at home in such subjects as consumer protection, ecotourism, climate change, advertising to children, and protection of glaciers. Parlatino currently is being considered to become the legislative organ of CELAC.
LBS Protocol: The 1999 Protocol on Land-Based Sources of Marine Pollution of the Cartagena Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment in the Wider Caribbean Region sets general obligations and legal framework for regional cooperation -- including regional standards, practices and effluent limits -- to address priority source categories, activities and associated pollutants of concerns, currently defined to include domestic sewage, oil refineries, sugar factories and distilleries, food processing, beverage manufacturing, pulp and paper manufacturing, and chemical industries. The Protocol entered into force in 2010 and currently has 10 Parties.
leachate: the polluted water that flows
from landfills, usually picking up suspended and dissolved materials
from the wastes as it passes through the landfill, including contaminants
such as heavy metals.
life-cycle analysis (LCA):
examination of the material and energy inputs and outputs at each
stages of a product's life-cycle (primarily manufacture, use and disposal)
to determine the product's total environmental impact.
Convention: Convention for the Protection of the Marine
Environment and Coastal Area of the South-East Pacific adopted at
Lima in 1981 and in force since 1986. Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama
and Peru are its Contracting Parties (CPs). In 1983 the Convention's
CPs agreed on supplementary protocols on (1) regional cooperation
in combating pollution by hydrocarbons or other harmful substances
in cases of emergencies; (2) pollution from land-based sources.
London Dumping Convention: 1972 agreement
ratified by 87 nations which bans the ocean dumping of certain substances
and requires the end of incineration at sea and of dumping industrial
wastes at sea. The IMO provides the secretariat for this Convention.
MARPOL: 1973 International
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships and its 1978
amending protocol. Overseen by IMO, MARPOL seeks to eliminate marine
pollution from oil and other hazardous substances and to minimize
their accidental discharge. MARPOL has six "technical annexes," the
first two of which (I: oil; II: bulk chemicals) are mandatory for
all ratifying parties, the others are optional, with governments indicating
which they accept. Annex III covers packed chemicals, IV ship sewage,
V garbage, and VI prevention of air pollution from ships.
material safety data sheet (MSDS): a formatted
information sheet prepared by a material manufacturer, importer or
employer, describing potential hazards, physical properties and procedures
for use use and handling of a material.